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The American Challenge, Vol. 1
Detailed Table of Contents

Chapter 1

NATIVE AMERICANS AND THE EUROPEAN CONQUEST

  • The First Inhabitants: Asian Migrations
    • The Agricultural Revolution
  • Great Civilizations of Mexico and South America
  • North American People and Societies
    • Pre-Columbian Mound Builders
    • Native American Diversity at the Time of Columbus
    • Native American Women
    • Common Native American Beliefs
  • Europe on the Eve of Exploration
    • The Impact of Trade
    • The Rise of Nation States
    • The Renaissance: New Thought and New Technology
  • European Exploration and Expansion
    • The Viking Explorations
    • Portuguese Explorations
    • Spain's Empire in the Americas
      • “Thursday October 11”
      • Bartoleme de Las Casas, Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies (1542)
    • The Impact of the Protestant Reformation
    • English Exploration
    • The French and Dutch Footholds in North America
  • The Columbian Exchange
  • New Cultures
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 2

THE SOUTHERN COLONIES

  • The Early Chesapeake Colonies: Virginia and Maryland
  • Success at Last: The Tobacco Boom
    • Tobacco and the Changing Nature of Virginia Society and Labor
  • Toward the Destruction of the Native Americans
    • Proprietary Maryland
  • The Caribbean Colonies
    • Masters and Slaves
  • Toward African Slavery White Indentured Servitude in the Chesapeake
    • Bacon’s Rebellion
    • The Rise of Slavery in the Chesapeake Colonies
  • The Atlantic Slave Trade
    • West Africans
    • The Middle Passage
    • Arrival in the New World
    • The Impact of the Slave Trade on Africa
      • Christian Slaves in the Muslim World
  • Establishing a Slave Society in North America
    • The Slave Codes
  • Carolina: A Barbadian Colony on the Mainland
    • Rice and Indigo Production
    • North Carolina
  • The Founding of Georgia
    • Reform Efforts
  • The Latin South
  • The Growth of English Colonies
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 3

THE NORTHERN COLONIES

  • The Founding of New England
    • The Puritans
    • Charles I’s Absolutism
    • The Plymouth Colony
    • The Great Migration and the Establishing of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
    • Land and Labor in New England
    • Puritan Family Life
    • New England Prosperity: Fish and Ships
    • Dissension in the Puritan Ranks
    • Roger Williams and Toleration
    • Anne Hutchinson and the Equality of Believers
  • England in Turmoil: The English Civil War
  • The Dutch Empire in North America
    • New Netherland
    • From New Netherland to New York
  • Quakerism and the Founding of Pennsylvania
    • The Quaker Faith
    • William Penn’s “Holy Experiment”
    • Penn’s Troubles
  • The Northern Colonists and Native Americans
    • Native Americans and Property
    • Tribute
    • The Pequot War
    • Praying Towns
    • King Philip’s War
    • Native American Survival Strategies
  • Mercantilism, the Navigation Acts, and the Redefinition of Empire
    • The Dominion of New England
    • The Glorious Revolution
  • Witchcraft Hysteria in New England
      • The Salem Witch Trials in Global Perspectives
  • Laying Foundations for the American Nation
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 4

CREATING AN AMERICAN PEOPLE, 1700-1763

  • Colonial Economic Development
    • Immigration
    • Slavery in the Eighteenth Century
    • The Stono Rebellion
  • Spiritual and Intellectual Thought in Colonial North America
    • The Great Awakening
  • Eithteenth-Century European Conflicts and the North American Colonies
      • George Whitefield: Popular Evangelist and Colonial American Consumers
    • New France and Spanish North America
    • European Wars Impact North America
    • Young George Washington Starts a World War
    • The French and Indian War, 1754-1763
  • Echoes of the French and Indian War
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 5

ORIGINS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

  • The Coming of the American Revolution
    • The Sugar and Currency Acts
    • The Stamp Act
    • Patrick Henry Rails Against the Stamp Act
    • Stamp Act Protests in Boston
    • Stamp Act Resistance Spreads
    • The Townshend Acts
    • The Boston Massacre
    • The Boston Tea Party
    • The Intolerable Acts
    • The Disintergration of Authority
  • The Revolution Begins
    • Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill
    • The Second Continental Congress
    • The Colonists Take the Offensive: The Invasion of Canada and the Siege of Boston
    • George III Throws Down the Gauntlet
    • Common Sense
    • Debating “Independency”
      • Peter Buckminster: A Muslim Patiot in the American Revolution?
  • Creating Americans
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 6

THE UNITED STATES AND THE AGE OF REVOLUTION

  • The Balance Sheet: British and American Strengths and Weaknesses
  • Disaster, Retreat, and Recovery
    • New York City Falls to the British
      • Thomas Paine
    • A Surprise Comeback: The Attack on Trenton
    • Washington’s Victory at Princeton
  • Seeking Allies
  • 1777: Year of Disappointment and Hope
    • The Saratoga Campaign
    • Philadelphia Falls to the British
    • Winter at Valley Forge
    • France Enters the War
  • The Battle of the Cupboards: Colonial Women on the Homefront
      • Mercy Otis Warren, A Founding Mother
  • Years of Stalemate, 1778-180
    • The British Evacuation of Philadelphia
  • The War in the West
  • The War Moves South, 1780-1781
    • Settling Scores in the Carolinas
    • The Battles of Cowpens and Guilford Court House
    • Cornwallis Blunders–The Siege of Yorktown
      • The Founding Fathers and Deism
  • The War Concludes
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 7

THE CRITICAL PERIOD, 1781-1789

  • The Radicalism of the American Revolution
    • The Revolutionís Impact on Class and Family
    • Changing Attitudes toward Women
    • Separation of Church and State
    • The Revolution and Slavery
      • A Nation of Drinkers
  • Chaos Under the Articles of Confederation
    • The Newburgh Conspiracy
    • Western Troubles
    • Shays’s Rebellion
    • The Movement to Replace the Articles
  • The Struggle to Create the Constitution
    • The Constitutional Convention of 1787
    • “An Assembly of Demigods”
    • The Virginia and New Jersey Plans and the Connecticut Compromise
    • The Constitution and Slavery
    • The Campaign for Ratification
      • Hanging for Pleasure and Education
  • A Retreat From Democracy
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 8

THE FEDERALIST ERA: 1789-1800

  • Establishing the National Government
    • The “Republican Court” of George Washington
    • The First Congress
  • Hamilton’s Vision
    • Hamilton’s Plans for the Public Debt
    • The Federal Excise Tax and the Bank of the United States
    • The Report on Manufactures
  • The Rise of Opposition
    • The Birth of the First Party System
      • Conflicting Visions of Republican Society
    • A Clash of Titans: Jefferson versus Hamilton
  • Western Troubles
    • The Destruction of the Woodland Indians
    • The Whiskey Rebellion
  • The Republic in a World at War
    • Americans and the French Revolution
    • Washington Declares American Neutrality
    • Maintaining Neutrality
    • Jay’s Treaty
  • Washington’s Farewell
    • The 1796 Election
  • The Adams Presidency
    • Troubles with France
    • Crisis at Home, 1798-1800
    • The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
    • President Adams Averts War
  • “The Revolution of 1800”
    • The Election of Thomas Jefferson
    • A Peaceful Transfer of Power
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 9

JEFFERSONIAN AMERICA, 1801-1815

  • Jefferson in Power
    • The New President
    • Jeffersonian Reforms
    • Jeffersonian Agrarianism
      • Evangelical Religion and Jeffersonian America
    • Jeffersonians and the Courts
  • Foreign Affairs Under Jefferson
    • The Barbary Pirates
    • The Louisiana Purchase
    • The Lewis and Clark Expedition
    • American Reaction to the Napoleonic Wars
    • The Embargo Act
  • The Road to War With England
    • Madison Seeks Peace
    • Native Americans and the Impending War with Great Britain
    • Tecumseh’s Vision
    • The Rise of the War Hawks
  • The War of 1812
    • The Failed Invasion of Canada
    • Tecumseh’s Last Stand
    • The Battles for Baltimore and New Orleans
    • The End of the Federalist Party: The Hartford Convention
  • The Second War of American Independence
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 10

THE “ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS”

  • Henry Clay’s American System
  • The Transportation Revolution
    • Steamboats
    • The Canal Boom
  • Judicial Nationalism and the Market Revolution
  • Changes in the New England Agriculture
  • Migration into the Old Northwest
  • The Beginning of Northern Industrialization
    • Samuel Slater
    • The Waltham System
    • The Northern Urban Commercial Classes
    • Urban Industrialization
  • The Market Revolution in the South
    • Cotton and Slavery Expansion
    • Characteristics of the Market Revolution in the South
  • The “Era of Good Feelings" Begins”
    • President Monroe
  • Foreign Affairs Under Monroe
    • Rapprochement with England
    • Relations with Spain
    • The Monroe Doctrine
  • The Missouri Compromise
      • Lucretia Mott: Feminist and Abolitionist Crusader
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 11

ANDREW JACKSON AND THE “WHITE MAN’S REPUBLIC”

  • Jackson’s Violent, Tumultuous Early Years
    • Dueling, Politics, and Slaveowning
    • Jackson and the “Code of Honor”
    • “Old Hickory”
  • The 1824 Presidential Election
    • The Bank Issue
    • A Divided Republican Field
    • The “Corrupt Bargain”
  • The John Quincy Adams Presidency and the Long Campaign
  • Jackson’s 1828 Triumph
    • “The Little Magician”: Martin Van Buren
    • the End of the “Era of Good Feelings”
    • Newspapers and the Election of 1828
      • Benjamin Day and the Great Moon Hoax
    • Jackson Emerges Victorium
  • Jackson’s First Term
    • The Spoils System
    • The “Petticoat Affair”
    • The Tariff of Abominations
    • Slave Rebels
    • The Nullification Crisis
    • Conspiracy Theories
    • The Bank War and the 1823 Campaign
  • Jackson’s Second Term
    • The Second American Party System
    • Destroying the National Bank
    • The Heir
  • Hard Times Under Martin Van Buren
  • Concepts of Race in Jacksonian America
  • Indian Removal
    • Chief Justice Marshall and the Cherokees
    • The Second Seminole War
    • The Trail of Tears
  • The Age of Jackson: An Assessment
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 12

THE UNITED STATES IN TRANSFORMATION, 1830-1850

  • New People, New Places: Population Growth, Urbanization, and Immigration
    • Urban Life
    • Immigration
  • Innovations in Transportation, Communication, and Agriculture
    • The Railroad
    • Speedier Communication: Clipper Ships and the Telegraph
    • Advances in Agricultural Technology
  • The Antebellum North, 1830-1850
    • The Transformation of Northern Society
    • Free Blacks in the Antebellum North
      • The Middle Class and the Culture of Self-Restraint
    • The Changing Life of Northern Women
    • Popular Culture in the North
  • The Antebellum South, 1830-1850
    • The Organization of Slave Labor
    • Living Conditions and Survival Strategies under Slavery
    • Southern Planters and Paternalism
    • Southen Yeomen Farmers
    • White Southern Women
  • Slave Labor vs. Free Labor
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 13

THE SPIRIT OF REFORM 1820-1860

  • The Transcendentalists
    • Ralph Waldo Emerson
    • Henry David Thoreau
    • Walt Whitman
    • Herman Melville and Nathaniel Hawthorne
    • Influence of the Transcendentalists
  • The Second Great Awakening
    • Saving Souls and Redeeming America
  • The Temperance Movement
    • The American Temperance Society
  • American Crime and Punishment
    • Prison Reform
    • The Penitentiary
    • The Almshouse
  • The American Asylum
    • Dorothea Dix
    • Hospitals for the Mentally Ill
  • Public Education
    • Horace Mann and Emma Willard
      • The Health Faddist: Sylvester Graham
  • The Struggle Against Slavery
    • William Lloyd Garrison
    • David Walker
    • Frederick Douglass
  • The Underground Railroad
  • Women and the Antislavery Crusade
    • Lydia Maria Child
    • Angelina and Sarah Grimke
  • Political Abolitionists
  • Suffragists
  • Societal Alternatives
    • Utopias
    • Millerites
    • Mormons
  • A Turbulent Age
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 14

AMERICA EXPANDS, 1840-1850

  • Western Expansion
    • Oregon
    • California and New Mexico
    • Texas
    • The Mormon Exodus
  • Manifest Destiny and the Politics of Expansion
      • Horace Greeley and the American Bison
    • The Tyler Presidency
    • The Election of 1844
    • The Annexations of Oregon and Texas
  • The Mexican American War
    • Opposition to the War
    • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    • Consequences of the Mexican American War
  • More Land, More Problems
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 15

EXPANSION, SLAVERY, AND SECESSION: THE ROAD TO WAR

  • The Political Divide Over Slavery Expansion
    • Slavery Expansion: Four Alternatives
    • The Growing Political Crisis over Slavery
    • The Election of 1848
    • The Compromise of 1850
  • The End of Sectional Harmony
    • Decline of the Whigs
    • Uncle Tomís Cabin
    • The Ostend Manifesto
    • The Kansas Nebraska Act
    • The Know Nothings
    • The Rise of the Republican Party
    • “Bleeding Kansas”
    • The Dred Scott Case
    • The Lecompton Constitution
    • The Rise of Lincoln
    • The Harpers Ferry Raid
    • The Election of 1860
      • John Brown: Traitor or Martyr?
  • The End of Compromise
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 16

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, 1861-1865

  • Advantages for the Union and Confederacy
    • Northern Economic Advantages
    • Manpower Disparities
    • Southern Geographic Advantages
    • Executive Leadership, Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis
    • Diplomacy during the Civil War
  • The War Begins in Earnest
    • The First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)
    • McClellan Takes Command
    • The War in the West
    • The War at Sea
    • McClellan's Failed Peninsular Campaign
    • Stalemate
  • Wartime Transformations
    • The Civil War and State Power
    • Emancipation
    • Everyday Life during Wartime
    • Women on the Home Front
    • Women on the Battlefield
      • Nurses and the Union War Effort
  • The Turning Points of 1863
    • Gettysburg
    • The Vicksburg Campaign
    • Chickamauga and Chattanooga
  • Toward Union Victory
    • Grant versus Lee
    • Sherman’s March to the Sea
    • The Election of 1864
  • The War Ends
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
Chapter 17

RECONSTRUCTION: THE TURNING POINT THAT NEVER TURNED

  • The Confederacy’s Defeat
  • Reconstruction’s Overarching Issues
  • Wartime Reconstruction
    • Abraham Lincoln’s Reconstruction Policies
    • Radical Republicans and Reconstruction
  • Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction
    • Johnson’s Reconstruction Policy
    • The Black Suffrage Issue in the North
    • Southern Defiance
    • The Black Codes
  • Land and Labor in the Postwar South
    • The Freedmen’s Bureau
    • The Issue of Land for the Landless
  • The Advent of Radical Reconstruction
    • The Fourteenth Amendment
    • The 1866 Congressional Elections
    • The Reconstruction Acts of 1867
    • The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
    • The Southern Response to the Reconstruction Acts
      • The White Backlash During Presidential Reconstruction: The 1866 Race Riots in Memphis and New Orleans
    • Republican State Governments
  • The First Grant Administration
    • The Election of 1868
    • The Fifteenth Amendment
    • Grant in the White House
    • Civil Service Reform
    • Foreign Policy Issues
  • The White Backlash Continues
    • The 1872 Presidential Election
    • The Panic of 1873
  • Retreat From Reconstruction
    • The 1876 Presidential Election
  • Chronology
  • Suggested Readings
  • Review Questions
  • Glossary of Important People and Concepts
APPENDIX
  • A. Declaration of Independence
  • B. Constitution of the United States
  • C. Presidential Elections
  • D. Supreme Court Justices
  • E. Admission of States to the Union
  • F. Population Growth
GLOSSARY
INDEX
to The American Challenge, Vol. 2

 

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